Wednesday, May 11, 2011

The first to translate the Communist Manifesto into Chinese of the five Chinese

Early 20th century, when the Communist Manifesto has just introduced to China, mostly in English, German and Japanese editions, but was not translated Chinese versions. Is now underway at this time preparing Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao's two founders of the Communist Party, has read the English version of the Declaration of the Communist Party, but agreed that it should be to translate the book into Chinese as soon as possible.

Dai Jitao rather radical thought at that time had bought a Japanese edition of the Communist Manifesto, also intends to translate it into Chinese. But he was put down, because the translation of this book requires translators not only familiar with the theory of Marxism, but also has a very high Chinese culture. Dai Jitao started finding suitable Chinese translation, Shao Lizi was informed that the matter, and he praised Dai Jitao Chen wangdao. So Chen wangdao also became the first Communist Manifesto English edition of the translation into Chinese of Chinese.

Chen wangdao ((January 18, 1891 �C October 29, 1977)

Chen wangdao, was born in Zhejiang Yiwu County on January 18, 1891, was in his early years in Japan Waseda University, he met while studying Japan early Socialists Kawakami Hajime, mountains and equal people, and read their translated Japanese version of Marxist works. In June 1919, Chen wangdao from Japan after returning from teaching at Zhejiang first division.
According to historical records, Dai Jitao to Chen wangdao provides the Japanese translation of the Declaration of the Communist Party, Chen du-Xiu from the Peking University library lending by Li Dazhao's English translation of the Communist Manifesto, and deliver it into Chen wangdao controlled translation. At that time, China also has a lot of insight into Chinese the Communist Manifesto, but are part of the translation only, and that translation is not accurate, or even numerous mistakes.

In February 1920, Chen wangdao village reservoirs in Zhejiang Yiwu County of painstaking when translated the Communist Manifesto English Edition is mainly based on the English translation of the Declaration of the Communist Party, but also with reference to the Japanese translation, and also in the past, the translation of extract found to reference. About nearly two months, brought out the Communist Manifesto Chinese translation of the draft.
In April 1920, Chen wangdao carry the Communist Manifesto the translation comes to Shanghai, then Chen du-Xiu's new Editorial Office of youth also has to Shanghai not long ago, so Chen wangdao participated in the work the editor of the new youth. Then Chen Duxiu, Li, Li Hanjun, Chen wangdao often discuss the founding of the Marxist and issues, so they organized the "society of Marxism", preparations to establish the Communist Party, published the Communist Manifesto has become a matter of urgency. Because the printing requirements is difficult, Chen du-Xiu's deliberations with Comintern representative weijinsiji, ultimately from weijinsiji immediately on financing funds. In this Shanghai Fuxing road, then into Yue 12th, had established a small printing plant in, named "new printing plant." Chen wangdao translation of the Declaration of the Communist Party is in a new printing press and of printing, for the first Chinese translation in the Chinese history of the Communist Manifesto, printed a total of 1000 copies, soon exhausted, then in September of the same year a second printing, printed 1000 copies still sold out quickly. To May 1926, has been reprinted as much as 17.
Chen wangdao Declaration of the Communist Party of the first translation is vertical in paperback, with a 5th type, typographical, newspaper printing, book text 56 page, vertical vertical, side of the page are printed "Communist Manifesto" margins of words, bet has Chinese characters to lowercase the word page number, book note parentheses after the original English proper nouns are words, for: a reader. Cover red marks 1875 Marx bust portraits, portraits from right to left cross questions below "Maghreb" words, portraits characters cross questions the book's title above the Communist Manifesto. The Declaration with a small mark above "socialism research books small first", the following marking "DJ muggs, and angeersi co", "Chen wangdao translated the words".

It is said that now in the national Chinese found only 11 of the Declaration of the first edition of the Communist Party, their collection in the National Library of China, the Beijing cultural relics Bureau, Shanghai Library, Shanghai party a major venue of Shanghai Lu Xun Memorial Hall, Memorial Hall, Yan an revolution Memorial archives, National Museum of China, Shanghai, Wenzhou, Zhejiang shangyu city archives, libraries, Dongying, Shandong Museum of history.

Hua Gang (June 9, 1903)

The second declaration of the Communist Party (English) translation into Chinese of Chinese name Hua gang. Hua gang, born on June 9, 1903 in longyou, Zhejiang Province Temple village in a farmer's family in August 1925 and joined the Communist Party. In March 1929, Hua Gang left Communist Youth League, specializing in leadership of the party's propaganda and organization work, successively member of the Hubei provincial party Committee propaganda Department of CPC, the CPC Central Committee Organization Council propaganda Minister and Inspector in North China. As early as 1924, Hua gang in Ningbo four reading, are heard Chen wangdao lesson, later became the second person to translate the Communist Manifesto into Chinese. In 1930, the Hua Gang the Communist Manifesto Chinese translation appeared to complete a translation, the book published by the Shanghai huaxing Bookstore, huaxing Bookstore is the leadership of the party's underground press.
Hua Gang translation Edition of the Communist Manifesto of take the form of camouflage, entitled "the Declaration", publishing house attributed to him as "Shanghai Foreign social science research". Contents include: contained in the preamble to the Declaration of the Communist Party, the 1872, the preamble to the preamble, the Convention of 1883 in 1890 and the English text of the Declaration of the Communist Party.

China Post translation of Communist Party declaration under also created has 5 a first: is CPC established Hou, published of first a Communist Party declaration under full translation; is CPC established zhihou first a to Communist identity translation of Communist Party declaration under; the book additional of three a German version preamble is first times and in China readers met of; the translation additional of Communist Party declaration under of English full text, used of is Engels personally scrutiny of 1888 English version, this is in China first times published of English this Communist Party declaration under; China post of declaration under translation also is first times used between English and Chinese controlled form published of, more conducive to declaration under thought of accurate spread.

And Chen wangdao translation compared, because Hua Gang on Communist Party declaration under has has has is deep of research, on Marx doctrine and in China revolution in the of application has has full of awareness, so China post this translation of terms more accurate, text more smooth, the this issued Hou sales is good, soon and republication two times, in 30 generation printing repeatedly, print-also many, today Beijing library, and China revolution Museum, and Central compiled Council library, the large library Museum are has collection this.

Cheng fangwu (1897-1984)

The third Declaration of the Communist Party (German) translation into Chinese of Chinese Cheng fangwu and Xu Bing. Cheng fangwu, was born in Xinhua County, Hunan know Li village, on August 24, 1897, in Paris in 1928 to join the Communist Party, has presided over the Communist Party branch in Western Europe in Paris and Berlin authorities published in the journal the red light, served as President and editor-in-Chief, he also with Germany Communist theorist Haier Mann �� winter g learning maendewen original. Then, CPC Central Committee main heads CAI he-Sen's know he knowledge profound, and know 5 species foreign language, on from Moscow to he letter, to he to Communist Party declaration under translation into Chinese, said Moscow foreign press prepared published, into imitation my on used then most popular of German Communist Party declaration under version, reference British, and French translation, spent has several months of time translation out Hou, he found has de total Central, please a Germany Communist will Communist Party declaration under in the translation with to Moscow to the CAI he-Sen 's, because CAI he-Sen's has was ordered to returned served as Guangdong Provincial Secretary of, soon on sacrifice has, so this translation also on lost has.
1931 autumn, into imitation my by European returned to Shanghai, in long Shi, he served as cadres mission political teacher, 1938, into imitation my in Yanan in northern Shaanxi public learn any principals, Xu Bing in liberation daily under any edit, Central propaganda Department are has a this Communist Party declaration under German brochure, let they second people using amateur time cooperation translation the book, they to the book into two part, into imitation my translation Qian half Department, Xu Bing translation Hou half Department, then conditions is difference, not only information lack, even even a this decent of German dictionary are found does not to, translation finished Hou, into imitation my to all asked and read a again. The translation is also known as translation, Xu, in August of the same year the translation was first set up in Yanan just published liberation, as the man series, 4th September, led by the Communist Party of China in Wuhan and Shanghai Publishing House, new China Bookstore Publishing House, new culture, and other publications.
In into, and Xu translation zhiqian, has has Chen wangdao and China post of two a translation, into, and Xu translation with China Post translation content as, are income has declaration under of body and three article German version preamble, but also has its own of five a features: first, this is by CPC open organization translation of first a Communist Party declaration under full translation; second, it is first under German original translation out of new book, because February 1846 in London Edition of Communist Party declaration under for German, thus more accurate to convey declaration under of thought; third, 1938, by new culture Bookstore published of into, and Xu translation also first times in book Qian published has Marx, and Engels of substantially photos, is today common of horse, and ex official portrait, on people intuitive to understanding Marx and Engels has major significance; IV, the translation not only language more close Yu in modern Chinese, and except vertical typesetting outside, also used cross typesetting, began to modern books form transition; v, the translation also first in Hong Kong of "China press" published, Edition time is October 1947, also by Qiao Guanhua (signed Arbor) pursuant to English edit, in text tail has school PostScript under and note has "1947.1. Arbor" words. During the war, Cheng and Xu translation widely disseminated not only in the anti-Japanese base area, and in the KMT ruled area is a wide spread, even to the Quake Wars. Cheng and Xu translations also worked as a public school in North Shaanxi Marxism-Leninism of course materials, is also Chinese communist cadres must read books, to raise the level of Marxist theory of the Chinese Communists played a huge role.
In 1975, the Cheng fangwu was 78 years old, under the care of Mao Zedong, was transferred to the Central Party school, consultant, and he is equipped with several assistants, form translation Group, systematically edit and translate Marxist works. With the help of aides, Cheng fangwu again a rigorous calibration of the Communist Manifesto, printed in 1976 in the Central Party school to try, and reported a member of. On May 18, 1976, the translation of Cheng fangwu will again go to Zhu de, Chairman of the Communist Manifesto, Chairman Zhu looked very happy. On May 21, regardless of the age of 90, Chairman Zhu Cheng fangwu place personally attend the Central School come to see him, the high praise of the Declaration on the new translation, and said that "to do this work has world significance. ��
Today, Cheng fangwu, and Xu Bing's translation of the 1938 Edition of the Communist Manifesto (including Yan ' an, Wuhan), 1939, 1947, the Hong Kong editions, in Beijing, Shanghai Library has a collection of the library.
The fourth to the Communist Manifesto (English) translation into Chinese of Chinese Chen Shoushi. Chen Shoushi, February 1908 was born in Jiangsu Wuxi donggang Taiwan South chenxiang village, 1929 examination into national central University United Kingdom language literature department, 1933 graduated Hou in Nanjing national government resources Committee any Secretary, 1949 years Hou, he has in Shanghai, and Beijing Bank of China head office abroad Council any section, and Deputy Chief, work zhiyu, he self-study Russian, and French, foreign language level higher, and translation has Soviet of novels jiaer Xun under, the book by Shanghai new literary press published. In March 1976, Chen Shoushi died at the age of 68.

Before 1949, Chen Shoushi translation also published the Communist Manifesto, translation of the book for the non-communist, legally published in KMT ruled areas only version, printed on the back cover of the book "Chongqing Journal of book reviews, review permit No. 3400". Libraries are in the Museum of Chinese revolution, Beijing Chen Shoushi translation translation of the Declaration of the Communist Party, Chen Shoushi translation features: 64 size vertical layout, covers Central is the title of the Declaration of the Communist Party, upper left red star, Red Star below are CPC hakenkreuz, right is "Chen Shoushi translated" words; works with type printing, paper is poor. The translation as the basic theories of Economics textbook of the comparative economic systems at the University at that time the first appendix of translation of documents, printed by the commercial press in early September 1943 Edition.

Bo gu, formerly known as Qin Bangxian (June 24, 1907-April 8, 1946)
The fifth Declaration of the Communist Party (Russian) translation into Chinese of man-made Bo gu. In October 1942, to tie in with the Yanan rectification movement, the Central propaganda Department set up the translation scrutiny Committee, because Bo Gu proficient in Russian, so he was one of the members, he based on the Declaration of the Russian edition of the Communist Party, Xu translation was translated again and increased translation of the preface to the 1882 Russian edition of the book. After the publication of Bo Gu translation, designated by the CPC Central Committee for five (the Declaration of the Communist Party, the Socialist from fantasy to science development, of the leftist infantilism, the two policies, the country and the Revolution) "cadre will read" one widely published in the liberated areas, before liberation in most translations.
Bo Gu translation of Communist Party declaration under increased a article preamble, in translation method more close Yu in modern Chinese, thus became 1949 Qian spread most wide, and printing line up to, and effect maximum of a version, not only widely spread Yu liberated areas, also spread Yu white area, and Quake Wars, the translation of reproduced this on has dozens of species, as East Xinhua Bookstore this, and jiaodong Xinhua Bookstore this, and North Xinhua Bookstore this, and (Dalian) northeast Bookstore this, and learning press this, and large-Dake Xinhua Bookstore this, and Zhongyuan Xinhua Bookstore this, and central China Xinhua Bookstore this, and Northwest Xinhua Bookstore this and so on, its circulation since 1938 to 1949 estimated in millions of book. So, today the translations in our libraries and museums are also a large number of collections.


  1. Whats the provenance of your information on this?
    Could you leave a bibliography?
    I need to know when any translation of the Communist Manifesto first arrived in China.

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